The Conservation Almanac has been used by multiple organizations to inform research across the country. Although we attempt to track how the data are being used, this list is not comprehensive.

Let us know about your project using the Conservation Almanac data. Contact Andrew du Moulin at

To recognize the valuable role of the Conservation Almanac in providing information on public funding for land conservation across the country and to facilitate continued updates of this data, users of the Conservation Almanac are asked to formally acknowledge the data source. This acknowledgment should occur as a formal citation in research reports, planning documents, on-line articles, and other publications. The citation can be formatted as follows:

The Trust for Public Land, Conservation Almanac, 2022,

Recent Publications Using Conservation Almanac Data

The Western Road to 30, 2021

The report examines state-level land conservation efforts in Western states and the ways in which those efforts and tools could play a role in reaching the goal of protecting 30% of America by 2030.

Harnessing visitors’ enthusiasm for national parks to fund cooperative large‐landscape conservation, 2021

UW Research Explores Funding Mechanism for Large-Landscape Conservation Adjacent to National Parks, 2021

Research paper released on Large-Landscape Conservation Adjacent to National Parks, draws on Conservation Almanac data for Idaho, Montana and Wyoming.

Virginia’s Return on Investment in Land Conservation, 2016

The Trust for Public Land conducted an economic analysis of the return on the Commonwealth’s investment in land conservation through a variety of state funding programs and found that every $1 invested in land conservation returned $4 in natural goods and services to the Virginia economy.

Public Conservation Funding in New England: Recent Trends in Government Spending on Land Protection, 2016

Report from Woodlands and Wildlands, a partnership between Highstead and Harvard Forest. The report provides an overview of recent trends in public conservation funding in New England, intended as a foundation for further conversations about the means by which conservation has been funded in the past and the ways it can be effectively funded in the future. The Conservation Almanac and National Conservation Easement Database provided significant data for the report.

Do Governmental and Private Conservation Funds Crowd Out Open Space Spending?, 2016

Poster prepared for the 2016 Agricultural & Applied Economics Association Annual Meeting in Boston, MA. Looks at the relationship between conservation funding sources and investigates how governmental and private land trust conservation activity affects municipal conservation activity. Incorporates Almanac spending information for Massachusetts.

Finding the Money to Buy and Protect Natural Lands, December 2015

Report from the Environmental Law Centre at the University of Victoria, Canada, that argues for protecting key private lands and reviews potential funding sources for land acquisition. The authors cite information from the Conservation Almanac state policy pages.

Investing in the Commonwealth’s Land and Water: VIRGINIAforever’s Five-Year Plan, 2015-2019

Report presents the history of conservation and conservation funding in Virginia and proposes five-year funding goals for land conservation and water quality improvement. The report uses data from the Conservation Almanac to cite acquisitions funded with revenue from the state’s 2002 voter-approved general obligation bond.

The Effects of Land Conservation on Productivity, Spring 2015

Article published in the Journal of Environmental Resource Economics at Colby analyzes the relationship between productivity and land conservation using GDP and acres conserved in all 50 U.S. states from 1998-2005. The findings indicate that the amount of land conserved per state is not a significant predictor of state GDP. The analysis uses data from the Conservation Almanac on acres conserved and public dollars spend on conservation.

The Value of Conserving Land, Spring 2015

Article in the Greenland Grapevine, the local newspaper of Greenland, New Hampshire. The author describes the results of the New Hampshire Return on Investment analysis and points to the Conservation Almanac and National Conservation Easement Database as sources for significant additional information on conservation lands across the U.S.

Threatened Protection: The Status of Coastal Protected Areas of the Eastern United States, November 2014

Presentation to the 7th National Summit of Coastal and Estuarine Restoration and 24th Biennial Meeting of the Coastal Society given by Margaret Walls, Resources for the Future. Describes study objectives to inventory coastal protected lands in 15 East Coast states, assess the threat of sea level rise, then evaluate and compare states’ abilities to adapt. Almanac data is used in a chart comparing annual state conservation spending to potentially inundated acreage of state protected lands.

New Hampshire’s Return on Investment in Land Conservation, 2014

The Trust for Public Land conducted an economic analysis of the return on New Hampshire’s investment in land conservation through a variety of state programs that funded land acquisition statewide, and found that every $1 invested in land conservation returned $11 in natural goods and services to the New Hampshire economy.

New England Forestry Foundation, Inc. v. Board of Assessors of Hawley, May 2014

Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts, Suffolk case between the New England Forestry Foundation, owner of a 120-acre parcel of forest land in the town of Hawley, MA, and the board of assessors of the town. Cites “The Return on Investment in Parks and Open Space in Massachusetts” as a supporting document.

Patrick Announces $10.3 million in statewide playground grants at Taunton’s Hopewell Park, May 2014

Article describes Massachusetts Governor Deval Patrick’s commitment to fund playgrounds and spray parks in all 54 Massachusetts cities. Cites statistics from “The Return on Investment in Parks and Open Space in Massachusetts,” including the positive effect of outdoor recreation on consumer spending, state and local tax revenue, and wages and salaries.

Will the Finch Land Deal Really Boost the Adk Economy?, May 2014

NPR News story describes the evolution of a plan, and New York Governor Andrew Cuomo’s commitment, to add 69,000 acres of timberlands to Adirondack Park over five years, and questions the effect to tourism and the economy. Cites New York state return on investment value: every $1 invested returns $7 in natural goods and services.

Making the Most of Our Money: Recommendations for State Conservation Programs, May 2014

Report highlights state land conservation programs leading the continued evolution of natural resource conservation and the mission of providing opportunities for Americans (and visitors) to get outdoors. Mentions Conservation Finance Program research and the Conservation Almanac.

Changes to the Land: Four Scenarios for the Future of the Massachusetts Landscape, 2014

Report presents results from a Harvard Forest analysis of potential future scenarios for the landscape in Massachusetts. Focuses on four options: Recent Trends, Opportunistic Growth, Regional Self-Reliance, and Forests and Infrastructure. “The Return on Investment in Parks and Open Space in Massachusetts” is used as a resource.

How U.S. Forest Service Land and Water Conservation Fund (LWCF) Program Acquisitions Impact Communities in Six Case Studies, April 2014

Report summarizes accomplishments of LWCF since its creation in 1964, and examines how LWCF investments in Forest Service land acquisitions have strengthened six unique communities across the U.S. by assisting locally-initiated forest protection efforts.

Report Card for America’s Infrastructure: Public Parks and Recreation, 2013

Report Card grades public parks and recreation opportunities in the U.S. overall and briefly summarizes conditions, capacity, investment, and funding. Success stories are also included.

A Legacy of Green: Celebrating 50 Years of the Green Acres Program, 2013

In honor of 50 years of the New Jersey Green Acres Program, this report outlines program accomplishments, and describes pressing needs for the future. Cites return on investment value for New Jersey: every $1 of state dollars invested in land conservation returns $10 in natural goods and services.

Cleveland Metroparks Good for Property Values, Study Shows, November 2013

Article summarizes results of the economics benefits study for Cleveland Metroparks, citing the Metroparks’ boost to property values, reduction in stormwater retention costs, and contribution the local economy through tourist spending.

The State We’re In: The Big Question Not on the Ballot, November 2013

Article details municipal land conservation funding ballot measures passed by voters in November, 2013, and notes the absence of a statewide measure. Cites return on investment value for New Jersey: every $1 invested in land preservation returns $10 in natural goods and services.

A Review of Conservation Finance Mechanisms in the American West, April 2013

Report examines the extent to which private lands protected through public funding have improved ecological integrity in the West. Also considers which combinations of funding mechanisms and government levels have yielded the highest returns for ecological integrity, in terms of acres protected.

Recreation and Protected Land Resources in the United States, January 2013

Report provides an overview of public and private land and water resources of the United States. Describes use of natural and developed land as recreation resources. Also describes land protection through conservation organizations and public funding programs, with an emphasis on protecting private land through purchase or conservation easements.

The Economic Benefits of Clean Ohio Fund Conservation, 2013

The Trust for Public Land conducted an economic analysis of the return on Ohio’s investment in land conservation through the Clean Ohio Fund and found that every $1 invested in land conservation returned $4 in natural goods and services to the Ohio economy.

The Return on Investment in Parks and Open Space in Massachusetts, 2013

The Trust for Public Land conducted an economic analysis of the return on the Commonwealth’s investment in land conservation through a variety of state funding programs and found that every $1 invested in land conservation returned $4 in natural goods and services to the Massachusetts economy.

A coordinated national strategy for wildlife conservation: Starting and Maintaining the Conversation, December 2012

Reviews a proposal from Indiana University’s School of Public and Environmental Affairs to establish a national conservation-support program intended to help knit together state level efforts and larger federal programs to prevent species from falling through the gaps.

Dedicated Revenue Sources for Land Conservation in Virginia, September 2012

Study evaluates long-term dedicated funding sources for land conservation and viable options for consideration in Virginia. Conducted by non-partisan, non-political evaluation and research agency of the Virginia General Assembly, JLARC.

Future of America’s Forests and Rangelands: 2010 Resources Planning Act Assessment, August 2012

Report summarizes findings about the status, trends, and projected future of forests, rangelands, wildlife and fish, biodiversity, water, outdoor recreation, wilderness, and urban forests, as well as the effects of climate change upon these resources.

An Analysis of Rangeland Preservation in Western States, Spring 2012

Reviews literature and examines case studies from effective statewide land trusts, exploring the circumstances that facilitate and impede private rangeland preservation.

Northeast Landscapes: Improving Conservation Practice in the Northeast Mega Region, February 2012

Report provides in-depth analysis of landscape conservation in the Northeast megaregion, inventorying and characterizing existing landscape conservation initiatives and assessing how their diverse efforts relate to issues such as protecting habitats and water resources; assuring recreational opportunities; and managing agriculture and forestry resources.

Retaining Working Forests: Eastern North Carolina, February 2012

Report studies the 33-county coastal North Carolina region—one of 11 priority areas in the Southeast where there are innovative opportunities for landscape-scale working forest. Considers the economic opportunities and challenges facing North Carolina’s largest forestland owners, with a focus on timber investment management organizations and real estate investment trusts.

Return on the Investment in Land for Maine’s Future, 2012

The Trust for Public Land conducted an economic analysis of the return on Maine’s investment in land conservation through the Land for Maine’s Future program (LMF). The Trust for Public Land analyzed the past (i.e., 1998 to 2011) and likely future (i.e., over the next ten years) of economic returns generated from LMF acquisition spending, and found that every $1 invested in land conservation through LMF returned $11 in natural goods and services to the Maine economy.

The Economic Benefits of New York’s Environmental Protection Fund, January 2012

Report quantifies and characterizes benefits provided by the Environmental Protection Fund (EPF), New York’s funding source for critical environmental programs. EPF supports a diverse number of programs in the broad categories of Open Space; Solid Waste; and Parks, Recreation, and Historic Preservation.

Accessing Federal Conservation Funds: A White Paper with Recommendations for the Greenspace Alliance, January 2012

Pennsylvania’s Return on Investment in the Keystone, Recreation, Park, and Restoration Fund, January 2012

Report quantifies and characterizes benefits provided by Pennsylvania’s Keystone Recreation, Park, and Restoration Fund. Projects funded through the program preserve land, improve parks, provide trails, restore historic sites, and enhance higher education institutions provide a multitude of economic benefits.

Economic Contributions of the Wyoming Widlife and Natural Resource Trust, December 2011

Report analyzes the return on investment made by creation of the Wyoming Wildlife and Natural Resource Trust (WWNRT) in 2005 by the Wyoming Legislature. The Trust, funded by interest earned on a permanent account, donations, and legislative appropriations, aims to enhance and conserve wildlife habitat and natural resource values throughout the state.

Survey Finds Majority of Kentuckians Support State-funded Conservation Efforts, November 2011

Press release for recent survey of Kentucky voters revealing voters enthusiastically support a number of proposals to increase the State’s investment in conservation of Kentucky’s resources.

Analysis and Recommendations for Increasing Restoration and Conservation on Private Lands in the Gulf of Mexico Region, May 2011

Report identifies policy and economic, geographic, and other limitations that currently limit the extent and success of initiatives designed to promote private landowner and industry participation in coastal habitat conservation and restoration activities. Provides a summary of recommendations and corresponding implementation strategies for improvements in the five of the U.S. Gulf States.

North Carolina’s Return on the Investment in Land Conservation, February 2011

The Trust for Public Land conducted an analysis to quantify and characterize the benefits of North Carolina’s investment in four Conservation Trust Funds. The report also assesses contributions of land conservation to tourism and outdoor recreation, defense and conservation, agriculture industry, and forestry industry. The Trust for Public Land found that from 1998 to 2010 for every $1 invested returns $4 in economic value from natural resource goods and services alone.

Measuring the Economic Benefits of America’s Everglades Restoration, 2010

Report uses best available data and economic methods to estimate increase in economic value from Everglades restoration to six basic services: groundwater purification, real estate, park visitation, open space, fishing, and wildlife habitat and hunting.

The Forever Wild Land Trust: Interim report to the citizens of Alabama – 1992 through 2009, 2010

Summary of accomplishments of Alabama’s Forever Wild Land Trust, a program that has acquired 205,408 acres in 22 counties since its initial funding in 1992. The report is meant to help the legislature of Alabama decide if these accomplishments are enough, or if they warrant being continued.

The Economic Benefits and Fiscal Impact of Parks and Open Space in Nassau and Suffolk Counties, New York, 2010

The Trust for Public Land quantified the economic benefits of Long Island’s parks and open space. These lands provide enjoyment, recreation, cost savings, and local revenues which supply quantifiable economic benefits worth over $2.74 billion a year. These benefits include cost savings provided by functioning natural systems, such as clean drinking water, and direct revenue generation from Long Island’s tourism and farming industries.

Our Nation’s Wildlife Habitats: Completing an Integrated System for Conserving their Values and Benefits in a Changing World, September 2010

Summary of report that presents the Wildlife Habitat Policy Research Program’s (WHRP) recommendations for creating a wildlife habitat system for the nation. Supported by four years of focused research designed to define the system’s scope and scale as well as challenges to completing it.

2009 Annual Report: North Carolina Million Acre Goal, Fall 2010

Report illustrates progress toward the the total number of acres conserved under North Carolina’s Million Acre Goal. Details the number of acres protected by sector (state government, local government, etc.), by program and by time period.

Return on the Investment From the Land & Water Conservation Fund, November 2010

The Trust for Public Land conducted an analysis of the return on the investment of LWCF dollars for federal land acquisition by the Bureau of Land Management, Fish and Wildlife Service, Forest Service, and National Park Service for a sample of sixteen federal units that received LWCF funding between 1998 and 2009.

A Return on Investment: The Economic Value of Colorado’s Conservation Easements, 2009

The Trust for Public Land analyzed the State of Colorado’s financial return on public investments in conservation easements. A conservation easement is a restriction placed on a piece of property to protect its associated resources.

Infrastructure Fact Sheet: Public Parks and Recreation, 2009

Fact sheet reports on condition of America’s infrastructure in public park and recreation facilities, recommends solutions that will work now, and estimates 5-year funding requirements for public parks and recreation.

State of the Great Outdoors, September 2009

Independent assessment of trends in the demand and supply of outdoor recreation resources, open space, and conservation lands in the United States over the past quarter century and of public and private sector funding and financing of conservation and recreation. Looks ahead to examine how emerging trends will shape the use of outdoor resources in years to come.

Great Outdoors of America: A Report of the Outdoor Resources Review Group, July 2009

Report of best recommendations from Outdoor Resources Review Group, an effort by leading conservationists from across the nation, on how the government and Americans everywhere can help preserve and benefit from the Great American Outdoors.